Clinical psychology in the military: Developments and issues (2022)

Table of Contents
Clinical Psychology Review Abstract References (64) The clinical psychologist's role in treating gay people in the military The Military Psychologist Father-fantasies and father-typing in father-separated children Child Development The Shipley-Hartford as a brief IQ screening device Journal of Clinical Psychology Developments in the AF-MET program and military benefits Averting suicides of USAF trainees The right to prescribe medications: Considerations for professional psychology Professional Psychology: Research and Practice The Army family (Memorandum to the soldiers, civilians, and family members of the U.S. Army) Mixed children: Some observations and speculations Psychology and the military: Research applications and trends American Psychologist Foreign marriages in the military Psychiatric Quarterly Does khaki become you? New PhD program in military clinical psychology The Military Psychologist Status of military clinical psychology The Military Psychologist Substance abuse programs in military settings Treating PTSD among Vietnam veterans: An existential perspective Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy The evolving role of AMEDD clinical community psychology: Utilization of the clinical community specialists Father absence in military families The Family Coordinator In service of two masters: The ethical-legal dilemma faced by military psychologists Professional Psychology: Research and Practice The military family in review: Context, risk, and prevention Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry Perennial ethical quandaries in military psychology: Toward American Psychological Association-Department of Defense Collaboration Professional Psychology: Research and Practice The military internship: A retrospective analysis Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Three studies in reliability and validity Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Not God: A history of Alcoholics Anonymous The military family syndrome American Journal of Psychiatry Child abuse and neglect among military families Treatment and prevention of alcohol and substance abuse in the military The effects of father-absence on Norwegian boys and girls Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology Are you uncomfortable? Military Psychology Bulletin Cited by (12) Preparing psychologists for high-risk jobs: Key ethical considerations for military clinical supervisors Consulting in the Military Context: Implications of the Revised Training Principles Ethical considerations for working with military service personnel State of psychology in the US armed forces Twelve the discourses of "psychology" and the "normalization" of war in contemporary Israel Military psychology in the Israel defense forces: A perspective of continuity and change Recommended articles (6) FAQs Videos
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Clinical Psychology Review

Volume 16, Issue 5,

1996

, Pages 383-396

Abstract

Clinical psychology's auspicious beginning and continued evolution as a profession reflects, in large part, its successful application in military settings. Indeed, military psychologists have continuously developed innovative treatment approaches responsive to the specific needs of the armed forces and its personnel Many of these interventions have been subsequently adopted by civilian psychologists for integration into practice. This article reviews the fruition of the discipline's efforts to address the mental health issues facing service members and their families. In addition, the unique opportunities and challenges facing clinical psychologists who operate under the influence of the military are highlighted.

(Video) Opportunities as a Clinical Psychologist in the Army Presented by Fifth Medical Recruiting Battalion

References (64)

  • American Psychiatric Association
  • C. Anderson

    The clinical psychologist's role in treating gay people in the military

    The Military Psychologist

    (Fa/l /995/)

  • C.R. Bach

    Father-fantasies and father-typing in father-separated children

    Child Development

    (1946)

  • W.R. Bartz et al.

    The Shipley-Hartford as a brief IQ screening device

    Journal of Clinical Psychology

    (1970)

  • J.L. Bloom

    Developments in the AF-MET program and military benefits

  • J.L. Bloom

    Averting suicides of USAF trainees

  • J. Brentar et al.

    The right to prescribe medications: Considerations for professional psychology

    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

    (1991)

  • R. Carney
  • Chief of Staff, U.S. Army

    The Army family (Memorandum to the soldiers, civilians, and family members of the U.S. Army)

    (1983)

  • Comptroller General of the United States
  • A.B. Cottrell

    Mixed children: Some observations and speculations

  • W.G. Dahlstrom et al.
  • J.E. Driskell et al.

    Psychology and the military: Research applications and trends

    American Psychologist

    (1989)

  • R.G. Druss

    Foreign marriages in the military

    Psychiatric Quarterly

    (1965)

  • C. Enloe

    Does khaki become you?

    (1983)

  • M. Feuerstein

    New PhD program in military clinical psychology

    The Military Psychologist

    (Fa/l /995/)

  • D. Grill

    Status of military clinical psychology

    The Military Psychologist

    (Fa/l /995/)

  • P.T. Harig

    Substance abuse programs in military settings

  • J. Harmond et al.

    Treating PTSD among Vietnam veterans: An existential perspective

    Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy

    (1993)

  • C.B. Harris

    The evolving role of AMEDD clinical community psychology: Utilization of the clinical community specialists

  • E.D. Hildenbrand

    Father absence in military families

    The Family Coordinator

    (1976)

  • T.B. Jeffrey et al.

    In service of two masters: The ethical-legal dilemma faced by military psychologists

    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

    (1992)

  • P.S. Jensen et al.

    The military family in review: Context, risk, and prevention

    Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry

    (1986)

  • W.B. Johnson

    Perennial ethical quandaries in military psychology: Toward American Psychological Association-Department of Defense Collaboration

    (Video) Army Psychologist: Thomas

    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

    (1995)

  • W.B. Johnson et al.

    The military internship: A retrospective analysis

    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice

    (1993)

  • T.M. Keane et al.

    Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Three studies in reliability and validity

    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

    (1988)

  • E. Kurtz

    Not God: A history of Alcoholics Anonymous

    (1979)

  • D.A. Lagrone

    The military family syndrome

    American Journal of Psychiatry

    (1978)

  • D. Lanier

    Child abuse and neglect among military families

  • G. Lawson et al.

    Treatment and prevention of alcohol and substance abuse in the military

  • D.B. Lynn et al.

    The effects of father-absence on Norwegian boys and girls

    Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology

    (1959)

  • D. Lombard

    Are you uncomfortable?

    Military Psychology Bulletin

    (1996 , anuary)

  • Cited by (12)

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      Expectancy effects during response selection modulate attentional selection and inhibitory control networks

      Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 274, 2014, pp. 53-61

      Choosing the correct response from a subset of alternatives is a fundamental problem and particularly demanding where conflicting response tendencies are evident. One phenomenon in this context is the congruency sequence-(Gratton effect), for which different theoretical explanations have been put forward. A critical aspect that differs between these explanations is the expectancy of what will happen in forthcoming trials. In the current study we examine the relevance of expectancy for sequence congruency effects and related neurophysiological processes using a flanker task in which we manipulate the probability that the n+1 trial presents the same stimulus–response mapping than the n trial. We ask what cognitive subprocesses involved in response selection may be modulated by expectancy effects. To distinguish different subprocesses probably modulated by expectancy effects we use event-related potentials (ERPs) in combination with source localization techniques.

      The data show that cognitive subprocesses modulated by expectancy depend on the nature of expected transitions between succeeding trials. Expectancy effects only affected trial transitions within the same category (i.e., ‘compatible-compatible’ and ‘incompatible-incompatible’), but not between compatibility categories (i.e., ‘compatible-incompatible’ and ‘incompatible-compatible’). On compatible trial transitions attentional selection processes operating via the precuneus mediated expectancy effects, while on incompatible trial transitions inhibitory processes were modulated that were mediated via the medial and middle frontal gyrus, the orbitofrontal cortex, the insular and the parahippocampal gyrus. Conflict monitoring processes per se were not modulated by expectancy effects. The data shows that there are different subprocesses underlying the influence of expectancy on sequence effects during response selection.

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      Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 133, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 405-412

      We have previously reported that combining low doses of oxazepam and metyrapone (OX/MET) reduces intravenous cocaine self-administration without affecting stress-hormone levels. We hypothesized that the combination of OX/MET would also inhibit the reinstatement of cocaine or methamphetamine seeking induced by the presentation of a conditioned reinforcer and that stress hormone levels would not be influenced by this treatment.

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      The response-contingent presentation of the conditioned reinforcer reliably maintained cocaine or methamphetamine seeking following vehicle pretreatment. Pretreatment with OX/MET resulted in a dose-related attenuation of both cocaine and methamphetamine seeking. Corticosterone levels were significantly different at the end of the 15-min session, but not following the 2-h session.

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    Copyright © 1996 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    FAQs

    How is psychology used in the military? ›

    Military psychology is a special branch of psychology that focuses specifically on military personnel and their families. This might involve performing psychiatric evaluations; assessing and treating mental and emotional disorders; and offering counseling services.

    What branch of psychology grew dramatically in the aftermath of World War 11? ›

    Specifically, psychiatrists and psychologists pointed to how motivation and morale were affected by social support among their fellow soldiers. These findings would fuel the emergence of social psychology upon the post-WWII landscape.

    Which subfields of psychology would work in the military? ›

    Military psychology includes the subdisciplines of social, experimental, industrial, organizational, human factors engineering, and clinical/counseling psychology, just to name a few. Some military psychologists are uniformed members of the Army, Air Force, Navy, or Marines.

    How does positive psychology apply to the military? ›

    Through positive psychology, military children learn about their character strengths, positive affect, and how to build positive social relationships. All of this helps mitigate the stresses of being a military child in a time of persistent war.

    Why is it one of the most controversial contribution in military psychology? ›

    One of the most controversial areas in military psychology concerns the integration of nontraditional groups into the often-conservative military society. Through World War II and Korea, military psychologists helped confirm that African Americans could be integrated into white units successfully.

    Why military psychology is important? ›

    Military psychologists are the first line of defense when it comes to helping service men and women readjust to civilian life and cope with their problems in a healthy manner. Thus, military psychologists are necessary to ensure veterans have the resources they need to lead a healthy, happy life.

    How did WWII change psychology? ›

    The deliberate expansion of the American psychological field led to a change in how psychology's role in society was perceived— not only were Americans directing the profession and its practices after World War II, but the American cultural understanding of the self and the individual became more psychological in ...

    How did psychologists contribute to WWII? ›

    Abstract. Psychologists brought their expertise to a wide variety of sectors during World War II. Building on their experiences of World War I, psychologists assisted the military in various forms of personnel selection, specialized training, instrument, weapon, and machinery design, and morale research.

    What was one effect of World War I on the field of psychology? ›

    What was one effect of World War I on the field of psychology? Psychometric tests were used for the evaluation of soldiers.

    Are military psychologists in demand? ›

    Military psychology falls under the category of “industrial-organizational psychology,” and according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, is the fastest growing area of psychology.

    Who is the father of military psychology? ›

    The award is named for Robert M. Yerkes, the “Founding Father” of military psychology. Yerkes (1876-1956) had a distinguished career as a comparative psychologist first at Harvard, and later at Yale University.

    How do you become a clinical psychologist in the military? ›

    Aspiring psychologists have four options to enter the military: Uniformed Services University (USU), Health Professions Scholarship Program (HPSP), Internship, and Fellowship. Currently, licensed psychologists can enter the military as Direct Accessions.

    Why do soldiers need therapy? ›

    Military individuals seek treatment for a number of issues, many similar to what civilians seek treatment for – depression, anxiety, anger management, and substance abuse – but all within the context of the demands placed on them within the military culture.

    What is military Counseling? ›

    The role of a military counselor is to provide support to active service members and veterans who may suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, substance misuse problems, and self-harm from their experiences in the military (Exum, Coll, & Weiss, 2011).

    Is positive psychology effective? ›

    Research studies show that those who experience and express positive emotions are more likely to conduct a happy life with more rewarding interpersonal relations and achieve their goals in life. In addition, such people are physically healthier and expect a longer life (5).

    What rank is a clinical psychologist in the Army? ›

    The Army reserve clinical psychologist enters the Army Reserve as an officer, usually at the rank of captain, in pay grade O-3. U.S. citizenship and permanent U.S. residency is required, as it is of all Army Reservists.

    What is the Society for military psychology? ›

    Division 19: Society for Military Psychology encourages research and the application of psychological research to military problems.

    Is being a military psychologist worth it? ›

    You will earn a good salary and enjoy many military benefits, and a pension if you stay in the service for 20 years. Job demand for psychologists is rising, so this can be a good career path, especially if you have a passion for working with military personnel.

    How many military psychologists are there? ›

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) employs more than 8,000 psychologists, making it the nation's largest employer for the profession.

    What rank is a military psychologist? ›

    Both psychology interns and first-year psychologists enter the military as O3s (a Navy Lieutenant or Air Force or Army Captain). In CY 2022, a psychology intern or first-year psychologist is earning $55,638 annually in basic pay (for the military pay charts, go here).

    What is military psychology PDF? ›

    Military psychology is the research, design and application of psychological theories and experimentation data towards understanding, predicting and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or civilian population that may be undesirable, threatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military ...

    Are there psychologists in the military? ›

    The U.S. military employs counselors, case workers, and psychologists in a variety of roles with various levels of education and training to provide a host of support options for our military personnel and their families.

    What is the Society for military psychology? ›

    Division 19: Society for Military Psychology encourages research and the application of psychological research to military problems.

    What is military mentality? ›

    From random shouts to unanticipated attacks, the military mindset is all about preparing for the unknown. In military lingo, this is called 'Situational Awareness'. Basically, it is the ability of your mind to pay attention to what's going or happening around you.

    How much does a military psychologist make? ›

    In CY 2022, a psychology intern or first-year psychologist is earning $55,638 annually in basic pay (for the military pay charts, go here). Service members receive a raise at two, three, and four years and then every two years after that, as well as in conjunction with promotions.

    Can I be a clinical psychologist in the military? ›

    Aspiring psychologists have four options to enter the military: Uniformed Services University (USU), Health Professions Scholarship Program (HPSP), Internship, and Fellowship. Currently, licensed psychologists can enter the military as Direct Accessions.

    Are military psychologists in demand? ›

    Military psychology falls under the category of “industrial-organizational psychology,” and according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, is the fastest growing area of psychology.

    Who is the father of military psychology? ›

    The award is named for Robert M. Yerkes, the “Founding Father” of military psychology. Yerkes (1876-1956) had a distinguished career as a comparative psychologist first at Harvard, and later at Yale University.

    Does the military do psychological testing? ›

    The US Army then implemented the Global Assessment Tool (GAT)7 for screening the psychological fitness of soldiers, which is combined with physiological measures. Recruits are assessed when they join the military and re-evaluated at regular intervals throughout their career.

    What is military psychology PDF? ›

    Military psychology is the research, design and application of psychological theories and experimentation data towards understanding, predicting and countering behaviours either in friendly or enemy forces or civilian population that may be undesirable, threatening or potentially dangerous to the conduct of military ...

    Does the military hire civilian psychologists? ›

    A case in point is the U.S. Army. Of the 600 clinical psychologists it employs, three quarters are civilians, according to the Army surgeon general's office. Another surprise: Preparing for, and securing, these civilian slots is not as difficult as you might think.

    What personality traits are needed for the military? ›

    • Military Leadership Traits.
    • Introduction.
    • Bearing.
    • Courage.
    • Decisiveness.
    • Dependability.
    • Endurance.
    • Enthusiasm.

    Does the military change your personality? ›

    People lower in agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness to experience during high school were more likely to enter the military after graduation. In addition, military training was associated with changes in personality. Compared with a control group, military recruits had lower levels of agreeableness after training.

    What is mental toughness in the army? ›

    Anyone can develop the mental toughness of a solider without being part of the military. Mental toughness is resilience—the ability to stick to something regardless of the obstacles in your way. It's about being goal oriented, always trying to improve, and being dependable and consistent.

    Is being a military psychologist worth it? ›

    You will earn a good salary and enjoy many military benefits, and a pension if you stay in the service for 20 years. Job demand for psychologists is rising, so this can be a good career path, especially if you have a passion for working with military personnel.

    What field of psychology makes the most money? ›

    Psychiatrists prescribe medications for patients with mental illnesses. Psychiatrist positions are by far the highest-paying jobs for psychology majors. The average salary is $217,798, according to PayScale.

    How many military psychologists are there? ›

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) employs more than 8,000 psychologists, making it the nation's largest employer for the profession.

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